Scope of C4:

SC C4 deals with methods and tools for analysis related to power systems, with particular reference to dynamic and transient conditions and to the interaction between the power system and its apparatus/sub‐systems, between the power system and external causes of stress and between the power system and other installations. Specific issues related to the design and manufacturing of components and apparatus are not in the scopes of SC C4, as well as those specifically related to planning, operation and control, apart from those cases in which a component, apparatus, or subsystem behavior depends on, or significantly interacts with, the performance of the nearby power system.

The scope of SC C4 is focused on system technical performance issues across this entire range of phenomena and time frames. To better define these activities, the following broad topics of interest are defined: Power Quality, Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Interference (EMC/EMI), Insulation Co‐ordination, Lightning, and Power systems performance models and numerical analysis. Inherent in all these activities is the investigation of the development of new tools, models, methods and techniques for the 4 assessment and analysis of such phenomena. In terms of modelling, models are needed and developed both at the equipment and system level, with the focus being on modelling for the purpose of analyzing the system and equipment interaction. The above points certainly relate also to the emerging Smart Grid technologies, with particular emphasis concerning Power Quality and Advanced Tools for the analysis of power system transients and dynamic performance.

Strategic Plan

  • Power Quality: Benchmarking of PQ performance; Compatibility levels and Indices; Measuring and monitoring; Correlation between lightning and voltage dips; Emissions from disturbing installations (e.g. HVDC, SVC, arc furnaces); Immunity of installations.
  • Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Interference (EMC/EMI): EM vulnerability; EMC in vicinity of power systems; Requirements and solutions for HV substations and generating stations; Effects of intentional EMI on the power system; Understanding geomagnetic phenomena and their impacts on the power system. Health effects related to low frequency EMF are covered by SC C3, but when needed, technical topics (measurement, calculations, mitigation, etc.) will be covered by SC C4.
  • Insulation Co‐ordination: Critical review of existing practice; UHV systems; HVDC systems; Interaction between system and transformers, with reference to transformer energization studies; Resonance and ferroresonance; interaction between long AC cables and the system; influence of system conditions and characteristics on CBs operation, such as TRVs; Insulator pollution influence on the system performance.
  • Lightning: Critical review parameter statistics; Attachment process; Lightning performance of distribution and transmission lines with reference to the application of line arresters; Low Voltage lines protection; Protection of wind generators; lightning location systems data application.
  • Power systems performance models and numerical analysis: Power balancing assessments; Influence of power converters and HVDC transmission on system security and AC network performances; Methods for modelling and aggregation of loads in active power networks; dynamic interaction between generation and transmission equipment; methods and tools for the analysis and assessment of power balancing; modelling of renewable energy systems and inverter based technologies; numerical EM analysis for surge propagation studies; Numerical techniques for the computation from steady‐state to very 5 fast front transients; modelling unsymmetrical conditions of power systems. Electrical transient interactions between the power system and equipment (e.g. between power transformers and the power system, performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables, etc.)